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For interstitial hyperthermia, an array of interstitial antennas (microwave) or electrodes (radiowave) is implanted in acessible tumors which might be located in deep or superficial tissues. The distance between the antennas must not exceed 1 – 2 cm, and therefore lesions with diameters below 5 cm are suitable (in order to limit the number of puncturing tracks).
Interstitial hyperthermia is an invasive procedure. Temperature measurements must be performed at the antennas and between them. In most systems, every single antenna is controlled by its own generator. Dedicated systems have in addition two or more segments per antenna or electrode controlled in phase and/or amplitude.
Clinically interstitial hyperthermia has been applied for prostate carcinoma, recurrent breast cancer and malignant brain tumors.